CO₂ in industrial refrigeration

Solutions for CO2 in industrial refrigeration

Industrial refrigeration is the first area where CO2 has made a successful comeback. CO2 in industrial refrigeration is used either as the low-stage refrigerant in cascade installations, or as a secondary coolant. Danfoss has more than 15 years of experience in developing components for sub-critical CO2 systems and offers a complete range of valves for those applications, including:

  • Control valves
  • Line components
  • Complete valve stations
  • Filter-driers
  • Sensors (temperature, pressure, level, gas detectors)

Danfoss has carried out all the required tests to ensure that components released for use with CO2 are compatible in all respects. Danfoss industrial refrigeration specialists can help you with the selection of the right components for CO2 applications. 


Why CO₂ in industrial refrigeration?

CO2 belongs to the so-called “Natural” refrigerants, together with e.g. ammonia, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane, and water. While ammonia is a great all-round refrigerant for industrial refrigeration applications, its use is sometimes limited in areas where toxicity or flammability is a concern. In these and in a number of other applications, CO2’s unique properties make it an attractive alternative: 

CO2 is both non-toxic and non-flammable. In places where it is allowed to use only a limited amount of ammonia, cascade or secondary CO2 systems are a great solution.

CO2 cascade systems are very efficient for low temperature applications. E.g. for freezing fish. With CO2 it is possible to freeze the fish faster and to lower temperatures, thus improving the quality and consuming less energy than in the same freezing process using other refrigerants.

CO2 is excellent as a brine. The circulation rate required for efficient freezing with CO2 is very low, thus reducing the size of the pumps, as well as the energy consumption. Heat transfer efficiency of CO2 is nearly constant for all practical temperatures, which makes it very attractive as a brine for low and medium temperature applications

Technical developments since the 1920's have removed many of the barriers to the use of CO2, which once existed. However, CO2 users must still be highly aware of its unique properties and take the necessary precautions to avoid problems in their refrigeration systems. Danfoss specialists can help you to select suitable components, and the literature found on this website covers a great deal of Danfoss experience with CO2 applications.


CO₂ products for industrial refrigeration

  • Product photo of the line of DCR burn out filter driers by Danfoss
    DCR filter driers

    DCR ELIMINATOR® filter driers protect refrigeration, freezing and air conditioning systems from moisture, acids and solid particles. A DCR filter drier is a parts program consisting of a DCR housing, a top cover and exchangeable core inserts type 48-DM, 48-DC, 48-DA and 48-F.

  • Product photo of the FIA 15-200 strainers by  Danfoss
    FIA 15-200 strainers

    FIA are a range of angleway and straightway strainers, which are carefully designed to give favorable flow conditions. The design makes the strainer easy to install, and ensures quick strainer inspection and cleaning. FIA strainers are used ahead of automatic controls, pumps, compressors etc., for initial plant start-up and where permanent filtration of the refrigerant is required. The strainer reduces the risk of undesirable system breakdowns and reduces wear and tear on plant components.

  • Product group photo of the AKS4100 liquid level sensors by Danfoss
    Liquid level sensors

    The AKS 4100 liquid level sensor takes you to a whole new level of flexibility and accuracy. With TDR guided radar technology, the sensor is fully adapted to industrial refrigeration – reliable and with high accuracy.

  • Product photo of the CHV-X 15-125 check valve by Danfoss
    CHV-X 15-125 check valves

    CHV-X check valves are designed to open at very low differential pressures, allow favorable flow conditions, and are easy to disassemble for inspection and service. Laser-cut V-ports provide excellent opening characteristics and the valve cone has built-in flexibility, ensuring precise and tight closing.

  • Product photo of the SCA-X 15-125 check and stop valve by Danfoss
    SCA-X 15-125 check and stop valve

    SCA-X are check and stop valves with built-in stop valve function. SCA-X valves are available in angleway versions.

Case studies

  • Danfoss logo with "Engineering Tomorrow" tagline
    Engineering Tomorrow makes CO2 the right choice for cranberry processing plant

    Canneberges Bécancour, one of the most productive cranberry farms in North America, built a freezing facility using an environmentally-friendly and efficient CO2 refrigeration system and Danfoss ICM TS expansion valves.

  • World's first 100% CO₂ system for ice rinks scores with Danfoss valves
    World's first 100% CO₂ system for ice rinks scores with Danfoss valves

    With an estimated 8,000 ice hockey rinks in the United States and Canada, the small Quebec town of Saint-Gédéon-de-Beauce, 20 miles west of the Maine border, boasts the world's first ice hockey rink that uses 100 percent carbon dioxide (CO₂) refrigeration.