Indirect heating systems

  • Overview
  • Documents
  • Tools and apps
  • Case studies

An indirect substation is used when district heating network conditions, such as pressure and temperature, do not allow direct connection. When a substation is connected indirectly, a heat exchanger provides energy-efficient heat transfer. It also ensures that the primary network supply side and the secondary building installation side remain safely separated. 

In this way, the building application works regardless of pressure or temperature variations in the district heating network (hydronic balancing) and is safe from pipe breaks or leaks.

Danfoss indirect substations are self-contained units that are generally wall-mounted. They can support single or multiple heating circuits, with or without domestic hot water production on the primary or secondary side.

These advanced solutions are also available with an electronic controller for weather compensation. This ensures easy and energy-efficient operation while simultaneously allowing central monitoring and energy consumption transparency.

Features and benefits

Advanced solutions available also with an electronic controller for weather compensation

Indirect substations with Micro Plate™ heat exchangers provide energy efficient heat transfer

Smaller, lighter, more efficient: Danfoss' compact substation DSA1 Mini

Learn how the station is installed, as well as tips and tricks for commissioning and maintenance.


Type Name Language Valid for Updated Download File type
Operating guide District heating substations English Multiple 19 Feb, 2020 3.2 MB .pdf
Brochure Specifying the right district heating substation makes commercial sense English Multiple 05 Mar, 2015 2.4 MB .pdf

Tools and apps

Case studies

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    Solar heating plant reduces CO2 emissions by 15,700 tonnes annually

    The world’s largest solar heating plant in Silkeborg, Denmark harnesses energy to heat the homes and workplaces of 40,000 citizens. It supplies 18-20% of the annual heat consumption in the city of Silkeborg, Denmark, which has an ambitious target of CO2 neutrality in heat production by the year 2030.

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    District energy as the heating and cooling solution in Teknopark Istanbul, Turkey

    Building: Office
    Application: Production of heating, cooling and domestic hot water
    Challenge: Design and construct customized district energy solutions for all buildings on the park
    Solution: Danfoss  designed and constructed 3 pre-assembled DSE substations containing control valves for the heating, cooling and domestic hot water, heat meters, self-acting controllers and electronic controllers connected to a central Building Management System. 

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    District heating compact stations in Mikado House, Orestaden, Denmark
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    Modernized district heating in a hospital, Belgrade, Serbia

    Building: Hospital
    Application: Heating + Domestic Hot Water production by district heating substations
    Challenge: Modernize old and inefficient heat and hot water system
    Solution: 58 fully equipped prefabricated substations

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    Renovation of an apartment building with flat stations, Hamburg, Germany

    Until 2014, the apartments in this multi-family building located in the Hamburg suburb of Bergedorf were heated using electrical water heaters and supplied with domestic hot water using electrical instantaneous water heaters. Now, after the renovation, a block heating station in the basement of the building provides heating distributed via flat stations installed in the stairwell and used for decentralized domestic hot water. Tenants were able to stay in their apartments throughout the renovation process.

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    Flat stations in apartment building in Hamburg, Germany

    Visitors to Hamburg’s Henriette-Herz-Ring who let their gaze drift upward will discover two shipping containers on the roof of the apartment building. They are the visible result of an innovative planning initiative to replace inefficient gas boilers with Danfoss flat stations. The highlight of this renovation: residents did not have to vacate their apartments.